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3 steps to apply IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry compounds

Unambiguous names and trivial names of Organic chemical compound considered a major obstacle in the face of chemists, scientists, and especially after the discovering of new chemical organic compounds every day, and the breadth and diversity of the function of each compound.

Scientists Think in creating a quick and systematic naming of organic compounds. This system depends on the presence or the basis of the nucleus of each group of organic compounds, reactions occur and then change parts of the branching fraction removing them and add another.

What is the organic chemistry?
It is the study of any chemical reactions between chemical compounds which consists mainly of at least one carbon atom.
Some textbooks call it Carbon chemistry.
Also most of Organic compounds found in living cells.

Scientists are still discovering new organic compounds as they are trying to make their organic compounds in the laboratory "synthesis" as a prelude to the exploitation of organic compounds in the industry and then in our daily lives.

How the IUPAC system works?
First the IUPAC is abbriviation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

Three steps to naming any organic compound:
Selection and then naming of a parent structure.
Parent structure is the root that have most number of carbon atoms without branching.
Number of carbon atoms in the main structure and branches expressed in Latin prefixes and suffixes.
List of prefixes added to root to identify number of carbons atoms in the organic compound.   
1  carbon atom add prefix "Meth"   
2  add prefix "Eth"    
3  add prefix "Prop"    
4  add prefix "But"   
5  add prefix "Pent"   
6  add prefix "Hex"    
7  add prefix "Hept"    
8  add prefix "Oct"    
9  add prefix "Non"    
10 add prefix "Dec"    
11 add prefix "Undec"    
12 add prefix "Dodec"    
13 add prefix "Tridec"    
14 add prefix "Tetradec"    
15 add prefix "Pentadec "   
20 add prefix "Eicos"    
30 add prefix "Triacont"    
40 add prefix "Tetracont"    
50 add prefix "Pentacont"

Main roots in Organic chemistry are three:
Alkane: Have the maximum length of saturated hydrocarbons. The suffix "ane" added to end of hydrocarbon.
Alkene: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons that have double bond. The suffix "ene" added to end of hydrocarbon after the location of double bonds.
Alkine: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons that have triple bond. The suffix "ine" added to end of hydrocarbon after Location of triple bonds.



Note: Unsaturated hydrocarbons have many branched chains or groups and maybe referred by the prefix "iso-" and Start counting from the direction that make the carbon atom have most substituents take the most lowest number.

Identify of the parent functional group and double/triple bond Locations if found:
Alcohols (R-OH)
Halogens (alkyl halides) (R-X)
Ketones  (R-C=O)
Aldehydes (R-CHO)
Carboxylic acids (R-COOH)
Ethers  (R-O-)
Esters ( (R-COO-), it is considered the Organic Salts.
Amines and amides  (R-NH3, R-NH2-R)

Note "R" means one substituent.
The order of the full nomenclature of organic chemical compound should be as:
Group of side chains and secondary functional groups with numbers + prefix of parent hydrocarbon chain (eth, meth) + double/triple bonds with numbers (or "ane") + primary functional group suffix with numbers.

Note that: sections within the full IUPAC name end with comma and if the nomenclature is two words it may emerged in one word when writing as (trimethyl heptane becomes trimethylheptane).
Cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds can be treated as the main parent chain of the compound.

Examples on naming:
C-H3 is a saturated organic compound  have only one carbon atom we will add the prefix "Meth" then it is sturated with three hydrogen atoms that will add suffix "ane"
The full name will be "Methane".

Many examples show you how the simple Organic compounds being named?
table from: schoolarabia.net

IUPAC Full Naming
Greece and Latin
Carbon atoms
Compound chain
Methane*
Un I
1
CH4
Ethane*
Do II
2
CH3CH3
Propane*
Tri III
3
CH3CH2CH3
Butane*
Tetra  IV
4
CH3CH2CH2CH3
Pentane*
Penta V
5
CH3(CH2)3CH3
Hexane
hexa VI
6
CH3(CH2)4CH3
Heptane
hepta VII
7
CH3(CH2)5CH3
Octane
Octa VIII
8
CH3(CH2)6CH3
Nonane
Nona IX
9
CH3(CH2)7CH3
Decane**
Deca X
10
CH3(CH2)8CH3
Undecane
Undeca XI
11
CH3(CH2)9CH3
Dodecane
Dodeca XII
12
CH3(CH2)10CH3
Tridecane
Tridecane XIII
13
CH3(CH2)11CH3
Tetradecane
Tetradecane XIV
14
CH3(CH2)12CH3
Pentadecane
Pentadecane XV
15
CH3(CH2)13CH3
Eicosane
Eicosane XX
20
CH3(CH2)18CH3
 
More will come:
How to rename Alkanes by IUPAC system?
How to rename Alkenes by IUPAC system?
How to rename Alkines by IUPAC system?
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